Dr.Iakovos Theodosiou MD.DipU
Diets very low carb or ketogenic diets used since 1920 as a treatment for epilepsy in some cases completely abolished the need for medication.
From 1960 onwards it has been widely known as one of the most common methods for treating obesity. Recent work has shown more in the therapeutic potential of the ketogenic diet in many pathologies, such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, acne, neurological diseases, cancer and improvement of the respiratory and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The probability that the modification of the food intake may be useful to reduce or eliminate the pharmaceutical method of treatment, often lasting lifelong with significant side effects, require serious investigation.
There is no doubt about the use of ketogenic diets in weight loss treatment. However, there are conflicting theories about the mechanisms of action.
It acts on the center of hunger and satiety causing anorexia, due to the saturation effect through protein, and direct effects on the hormonal appetite control system via ketone bodies.
Decrease of lipogenesis and increasing lipolysis by insulin. Insulin activates key enzymes in metabolic pathways that store energy derived from carbohydrates when lacking or deficient dietary carbohydrates decreased insulin levels that result lead to a decrease in lipogenesis and fat accumulation.
Reduction in respiratory quotient, and thus, greater metabolic efficiency in burning of fats.
Increased metabolic costs through gluconeogenesis and thermogenic effects of the proteins.
Improving cardiovascular risk factors by improving almost the entire lipid profile. You seem to decrease both endogenous and exogenous cholesterol.
A key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (the target of statins), which is activated by insulin, which means that an increase in blood glucose would result, the increased insulin levels would increase the endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. A reduction in carbohydrate therefore will have the opposite effect, and this, combined with the absence of added dietary cholesterol and lipids, are likely to be the mechanism by which normal ketosis can improve lipid profiles.
Chokisteroli raise good (HDL).
DIABETES TYPE 2
Insulin resistance is the primary dysfunction of type 2 diabetes. A primary feature of insulin resistance is an impaired ability of the muscle cells to recruit circulating glucose. A person with insulin resistance will deflect a larger than normal percentage of dietary carbohydrates in the liver, where most of it is converted into fat (i.e., de novo lipogenesis – about 20% of ingested dietary lipids).
When dietary carbohydrate limited below a level zero is then the percentage of carbohydrate that is converted to fat (a threshold that varies from individual to individual) and the symptoms of insulin resistance often ameliorated or completely disappear.
In short, people with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is likely to see improvement of symptoms and biochemical event risk indicators of disease.
Improving the levels of glucose control improves not only because less glucose and because it improves insulin resistance.
POLYKYSTIKES OVARIES SYNDROME
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder in women with a high prevalence (6-10%). Symptoms include hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, obesity, insulin resistance and infertility. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia occurs approximately 65-70% of women with PCOS. Obesity has found 70-80% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia appear to be associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, regardless of obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome frequently exhibit many of the signs associated with the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes type 2, dyslipidemia and also high levels of inflammation. Recommended treatments include those that reduce insulin resistance / hyperinsulinemia, such as lifestyle changes (exercise, diet and weight loss), and pharmacological therapies comprising administering metformin or thiazolidinediones. Obviously interventions that improve hyperinsulinemia and weight reduction can also be effective at reducing hyperandrogenism, normalization of ovulation and reduction of symptoms in polycystic ovary syndrome.
The ketogenic diet also has a therapeutic effect and may be applied as diet therapy for the following diseases.