Dr.Iakovos Theodosiou MD.DipU
CORONARΥ ARTERY DISEASE
As BMI increases, bigest is the risk for coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is a condition in which fat is deposited in the coronary arteries called plaque. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart.
The plaque may restrict the diameter of the coronary arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart muscle. This can cause angina or heart attack. (Angina is chest pain or discomfort.)
Obesity can also lead to heart failure. This is a serious situation in which our heart can not pump enough blood to meet the needs of our body.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against artery walls as the heart pumps blood. If this pressure increases and remains high with passage of time, can damage the body in many ways.
The chances to have high blood pressure (hypertension) is higher if you are overweight or obese.
Being overweight or obese can lead to plaque accumulation (lipid plaque) in the arteries. A plaque may be dislodged from the vessel wall and cause a blood clot.
If the clot is near to the brain, it can block the flow of blood and oxygen to the brain and cause a stroke. The risk of stroke increases as BMI increases.
DIABETES TYPE 2
Diabetes is a disease in which the body’s blood glucose level or th blood sugar is very high. Normally, the body breaks down the food into glucose and then transferring the cells throughout the body. Cells use a hormone called insulin to convert glucose into energy.
In type 2 diabetes, the body’s cells do not use insulin properly. Initially the body reacts by secreting more insulin. Over time, however, the body can not produce enough insulin to control the level of sugar in the blood.
Diabetes is the leading cause of premature death, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness kg. Most people who have type 2 diabetes are overweight.
DISORDER OF BLOOD LIPIDS
Overweight or obese people, are at increased risk to may not have normal blood lipid levels. The bad blood lipid profile characterized by high levels of triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol and low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol.
Abnormal levels of these fats in the blood are a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
Metabolic syndrome is the name of the whole of a group of risk factors that increase the risk for heart disease and other health problems such as diabetes and stroke.
You can develop any of these risk factors separately, but they tend to occur together. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome if you have at least three of the following risk factors:
– A large diameter abdomen. This is called abdominal obesity or “apple shape”. Having extra fat in the abdomen area is the largest risk factor for CHD than having extra fat in other body parts, such as hips.
– A higher than normal level of triglycerides (or on medicine treatment).
– A lower than normal level of cholesterol HDL (or on medicine treatment).
– Higher than normal blood pressure (or on medicine treatment).
– Higher than normal fasting blood sugar (or on medicine treatment).
Being overweight or obese increases the risk for cancer of the colon, breast, endometrial and gallbladder.
Osteoarthritis is a common problem in the knees, hips and lower back. The condition occurs when the tissue that protects the joints wears away. The extra weight can put more pressure and wear in the joints, causing pain.
SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME
Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breathing while you sleep.
A patient who has sleep apnea may have more fat stored around the neck. This can narrow the airway, making it difficult to breathe.
OBESITY HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME
The obesity hypoventilation syndrome is a disorder that affects breathing some obese people. In OHS, bad breath leads to too carbon dioxide (hypoventilation) and very little oxygen in the blood (hypoxia). Obesity hypoventilation syndrome can lead to serious health problems and can even cause death.
REPRODUCTIVE AND GYNECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Obesity can cause menstrual problems and infertility in women.
Gallstones are hard pieces of stone-like material that is formed in the gallbladder. They are for the most of cholesterol. Gallstones can cause stomach or back pain.
People who are overweight or obese are at increased risk of having gallstones. Also, the excessive weight can lead to an enlarged gallbladder with disfunctions.